What is the fitness?

Outset: the fitness do not exercise, although this is the word that immediately comes to mind at the mention of gymnastics, strength exercises and loads of other sports that are an integral part of fitness. The concept of “fitness” is much broader than the alternating tilts and sit-UPS, Jogging or daily pool. And very well: it is unlikely that most of us have kept warm memories of school PE lessons or gymnastics production.
Fitness (from the English “to be fit” – “be in shape”) is the active lifestyle that combines exercise and proper nutrition.It gives people a great feeling and the mood, improves the appearance and improves health.

The word “fitness”; fitness first clubs emerged in the United States. But the very idea of fitness is not new – it dates back to the era of antiquity. It is interesting to trace the development of ideas about fitness from ancient times to the present day.

Fitness in ancient times

In Ancient Greece and Rome there was the cult of athleticism, healthy and beautiful body. Was supposed to follow and for her spiritual condition, as it was believed that the hero should be inherent not only bravery and courage, but also discipline, poise, the ability to control both their movements and feelings.

The theory of harmonious development of spiritual and physical qualities was developed many outstanding minds of ancient times: philosophers Plato and Aristotle, the famous physician Hippocrates. Greek and Roman athletes sought to combine inner and outer beauty and health. Those who had dedicated his life to various sports (mainly running, swimming, discus and javelin, chariot management), in his art has reached perfection. In peace time athletics was, as they say now, an elite profession, the prerogative of the elite. And at the time of the Olympic games even stopped war, that shows a deep reverence of the Greeks for sports. And the revival of the Olympic games in 1896, served this purpose – the strengthening of friendship and understanding throughout the world, raising interest in the sport and active living.

And nowadays many, like the ancient athletes, dedicate their lives to fitness, are improved in this area themselves and train others. Many professional athletes, after retiring, I continue to do fitness to stay in good shape. They train for fun, without high loads, inherent in the world of professional sport. In any case fitness “for yourself” brings no less profit and moral satisfaction than the competition.

Fitness abroad

Why the birthplace of modern fitness is considered the USA? The fact that the very first fitness program developed during the Second World war for American soldiers, that they were in good physical shape. Under the guidance of professional trainers athletes rocked the military press, performing strength exercises, pull-UPS on the crossbar. Subsequently, these programmes were further refined and formed the basis of fitness.

About fitness is a way of life in the US started talking a little later, in the late 60s-early 70s. XX century, when physical condition testing conducted among various segments of the population, revealed a rather bleak picture. It was found that the majority of Americans active age suffer shortness of breath, overweight, cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, almost all respondents were Smoking and could in the future to purchase the entire “bouquet” of diseases related. There is a strange paradox: the growth of material well-being of all people was worse than their physical health. Meanwhile nothing strange in this: after work, people came home and sat on the couch watching TV, consuming crisps and Smoking cigarette after cigarette. Isn’t it a familiar situation?

It became clear that to save the nation’s health can only fitness. Should radically change the way of life of the majority population (in the direction of increasing activity) and diet (caloric reduction). The solution to this problem in the USA was doing the Presidential Council on fitness. It includes policy and most reputable professionals in the field of fitness. The Council was successful: he managed to make fitness popular, many people enrolled in fitness clubs purposefully created across the country. Currently in the USA about 17 million people are members of such clubs, and those who lead an active lifestyle and watches his diet, is becoming more and more. Over the last ten years the number of fitness enthusiasts have quadrupled.

But it’s there, across the ocean… And how are things? It’s no secret that the Russians are in no hurry to get out of the cozy sofas, pull sneakers and tracksuits and go to the club to workout. And yet…

Modern medical opinion on fitness

All existing fitness exercises can be divided into five groups (according to the principle of development of physical qualities).

Cardio program (developing aerobic endurance). These include walking, Jogging, Cycling, aerobics, interval training, dancing, some martial arts and, of course, swimming. These exercises are recommended for improving cardiac activity and blood circulation.

The power program – the training program may include a variety of exercises, which aim at strengthening and developing the muscles of the torso. Exercises can be performed using weights own body, and using additional weights (free weights, mechanical machines, weights and accessories halls for group programs).

Program that develops speed and explosive quality. In this category you can include all the sports games with the ball, plyometric exercises. Type perform these exercises a short, fast Workout fast movements be useful not only in dance class or on the football field, but on a walk through the difficult route on a slippery road.

Program on the development of coordination, balance and stability.

Programs aimed at the development of flexibility.

As a rule, in one program we are developing quality of several groups. That is, in practice, the fitness program is a harmonious combination of exercises from all these groups, but everyone chooses with the help of experts fitness programmes that are relevant for him.